The oldest preserved accounts of person-to-person forgiveness are found in the Old Testament of the Bible. Perhaps the best and most obvious example is in Genesis 37-45 where Joseph was left for dead by his jealous brothers, yet he rose to power in Egypt. Having the opportunity to punish those same brothers years later, he instead offered unconditional forgiveness before they ever repented. Islam’s Koran has a somewhat similar story using the same names.
Of the ancient literature, the Christian New Testament has the most references to forgiveness. The story most often cited (Luke 15:11-32) is of the prodigal son who squandered his father’s inheritance and then crawled back to the family. To his surprise, his father unconditionally accepts and loves him despite his moral failings. Some of the many other New Testament examples with implications for person-to-person forgiveness include:
Matthew 18:23-35- the unforgiving servant
Matthew 6:9, 14-15- Jesus’ commentary on the Lord’s Pray with particular emphasis on forgiving
John 15:12-14; 13:34-35 – “Love as I have loved you.” His forgiving love is to be our forgiving love
Matthew 5:43-47- we are to pray for those who hurt us
Peter 4:12-14, 19- we are to share in Christ’s suffering; he suffered for the unjust; we are to do the same.
Buddhist (notably, a story of a hermit who is savagely beaten by a jealous king and yet he unconditionally accepts the king), Muslim (afo) and Confucian (shu) perspectives all make room for forgiveness and see it as a morally worthwhile activity. Forgiveness cuts across virtually every religion and philosophy.